Clouds and Aerosols

Graf, H.-F.; Gräfe, I.: Die Niederschlagsverteilung im Raum Berlin in Abhängigkeit von Höhenwetterlage und Bodenwindrichtung., Z. Meteorol. 29, 56-64, 1979. (The distribution of precipitationin the Berlin area depending on height weather and surface wind direction).

Graf, H.-F.: Zur Abschätzung des Einflusses der Großstadt auf die Niederschlagsprozesse mit Hilfe eines eindimensionalen Wolkenmodelles., Z. Meteorol. 29, 360-365, 1979. (Estimation of the impact of a large city on precipitation processes using a onedimensional cloud model).

Graf, H.-F.: Niederschlagsbeeinflussung im Gebiet einer Großstadt., Abh. Met. Dienst der DDR, 128, 99-105, 1982. (Influence on precipitation in a large urban area).

Graf, H.-F.: Zur Anwendung eines thermodynamischen Wolkenmodells auf Probleme der technischen Meteorologie., Abh. Met. Dienst der DDR, 128, 107-113, 1982. (On the use of a thermodynamic cloud model to problems of technical meteorology).

Graf, H.-F.: Über Ursachen städtischer Niederschlagsanomalien., Abh. Met. Dienst der DDR, 132, 125-127, 1983. (About the causes of urban precipitation anomalies).

Graf ,H.-F.: Zum Einfluß der Rauchgasfeuchte auf die Steighöhe von Schornsteinemissionen., Z. Meteorol. 33, 332-336, 1983. (On the influence of smoke humidity on the rise height of stack emissions).

Graf, H.-F.; Teubner, F.: Zur Berechnung der Obergrenze konvektiver Wolken mit einem eindimensionalen Wolkenmodell. Abh. Meteorol. Dienst der DDR, 140, 83-86, 1988. (On the computation of the top height of convective clouds with a one-dimensional cloud model).

Bakan; S., A. Chlondt; U. Cubasch; J. Feichter; H.-F. Graf; H. Grassl; K. Hasselmann; I. Kirchner; M. Latif; E. Roeckner; R. Sausen; U. Schlese; D. Schriever; I. Schult; U. Schumann; F. Sielmann; W. Welke: Climate response to smoke from the burning oil wells in Kuwait., Nature, Vol.351, No.6325, 367-371, 1991.

Robock, A. and H.-F. Graf: Effects of pre-industrial human activities on climate., Chemosphere, 29, 1087-1097, 1994.

Heintzenberg, J., H.-F. Graf, R.J. Charlson, and P. Warneck: Climate forcing and the physico-chemical life cycle of the atmospheric aerosol - Why do we need an integrated, interdisciplinary global research programme?, Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 69, 261-272, 1996.

Langmann, B., Herzog, M., and Graf, H.-F.: Radiative forcing of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols as dertermined by a regional circulation-chemistry transport model., Atmospheric Environment, 32, 2757-2768, 1998.

Trentmann, J., M.O. Andreae, H.-F. Graf, P.V. Hobbs, R.D. Ottmar, and T. Trautmann: Simulation of a biomass burning plume: Comparing model results with observations., Journ. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000410, 2002.

Nober, F., H.-F. Graf, and D. Rosenfeld: Sensitivity of the global circulation to the suppression of precipitation by anthropogenic aerosols., Global and Planetary Change, 37, 57–80, 2003.

Langmann, B. and Hans-F. Graf: Indonesian smoke aerosols from peat fires and the contribution from volcanic sulfur emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett.,30, 11, 1547, doi:10.1029/2002GL016646, 2003.

Trentmann, J., M.O. Andreae, H.-F. Graf: Chemical processes in young biomass burning plumes., J. Gephys. Res., 108(D22), 4705, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003732, 2003.

Langmann, B., H.-F. Graf and A. Heil: Smoke particles from peat fires in Indonesia 1997/1998: A model study, J. Aerosol Science 34, Suppl. 1, 608-610, 2003.

Graf, H.-F.: The complex interaction of aerosols and clouds, SCIENCE, Vol. 203, 1309-1311, 27 February, 2004.

Wurzler, S., M. Simmel, K. Diehl, T. Hennig, H. Herrmann, Y. Iinuma, K. Lehmann, A. Massling, F. Stratmann, A. Wiedensohler, G. Zech, K. Zeromskiene, R. Posselt, K. Hungershöfer, T. Trautmann, M. O. Andreae, D. Chand, U. Dusek, G. P. Frank, G. Helas, R. S. Parmar, O. Schmid, T. Winterrath, M. Welling, J. Trentmann, H. F. Graf, B. Langmann, F. Nober, C. Textor: Impact of vegetation fires on composition and circulation of the atmosphere (EFEU), The EGGS, 16 September 2004.

Nober FJ, Graf HF: A new convective cloud field model based on principles of self-organisation, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 5, 2749-2759, OCT 20, 2005.

Pfeffer, M.A., B. Langmann, and H.-F. Graf, Atmospheric transport and deposition of Indonesian volcanic emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., Volume: 6, Pages: 2525-2537, Published: JUN 30 2006.

Luderer,G., Trentmann, J, Winterrath, T, Textor, Ch., Herzog, M., Graf, H.-F., and Andreae, M.O.: Modeling of biomass smoke injection into the lower stratosphere by a large forest fire (part II): Sensitivity studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., Volume: 6, Pages: 5261-5277, 2006.

Trentmann, J., G. Luderer, T. Winterrath, M. D. Fromm, R. Servranckx, C. Textor, M. Herzog, H.-F. Graf, M. O. Andreae, Modeling of biomass smoke injection into the lower stratosphere by a large forest fire (Part I): Reference simulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5247-5260, 2006.

H.-F. Graf and J. Yang: Evaluation of a new convective cloud field model: precipitation over the maritime continent., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 409-421, 2006.

Graf, H.-F., J. Yang, and T. M. Wagner: Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation during the 1997 smoke episode in Indonesia., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 743-756, 2009.

Wagner, T.M. and H-F Graf, An ensemble cumulus parameterization with explicit cloud treatment, Journ. Atmos. Sci, 67, 12, 3854-3869,, 2010.

M. A. Pfeffer, B. Langmann, A. Heil, and H.-F. Graf: . Numerical simulations examining the possible role of anthropogenic and volcanic emissions during the 1997 Indonesian fires., Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 1-16, 2010.

Wagner T.M., Graf H.-F., Herzog M, Comments on "An Ensemble Cumulus Convection Parameterization with Explicit Cloud Treatment" Reply, J ATMOS SCI, 68(7), 1545-1546, Jul 2011.

Yano, J.–I., H.-F. Graf, and F. Spineanu: Meeting report: Theoretical and operational implications of atmospheric convective organization. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:, 2012.

Pfeffer, MA ; Langmann, B ; Heil, A ; Graf, H-F: Numerical simulations examining the possible role of anthropogenic and volcanic emissions during the 1997 Indonesian fires AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH,  Volume: 5,   Issue: 3,    Pages: 277-292,   DOI: 10.1007/s11869-010-0105-4,   Published: SEP 2012.

Bannister, Daniel; Herzog, Michael; Graf, Hans-F.; et al, An Assessment of Recent and Future Temperature Change over the Sichuan Basin, China, Using CMIP5 Climate Models, JOURNAL OF CLIMATE,   Volume: 30 - 17,   Pages: 6701-6722, SEP 2017.

EL Niño

Graf, H.-F.: Eine globale Eigenschwingung des Systems Ozean-Atmosphäre., Z.Meteorol., 35, 223-226, 1985. (A global autooscillation of the system ocean-atmosphere).

Graf, H.-F.: On a Northern Hemispheric auto-oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system., TO-AN, 31,7-9, 1985.

Graf, H.-F.: On EL Niño/Southern Oscillation and Northern Hemispheric temperature., Gerlands Beitr. Geophys., 95, 63-75, 1996.

Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.-F.: On wind field, limits of the subtropic high pressure belts and equatorial sea surface temperature., TO-AN, 36, 13-15, 1986.

Graf, H.-F.: Abkühlung der Nordhemisphare - ein möglicher Trigger für EL Niño/ Southern Oscillation Episoden. Naturwissenschaften 73, 258-263, 1986. (Cooling of the Northern hemisphere - a possible trigger for EL Niño/Southern Oscillation).

Graf, H.-F.: Zur Auslösung von EL Niño/Southern Oscillation Ereignissen. Abh. Meteorol.Dienst der DDR, 140, 101-108, 1988. (On the trigger of EL Niño/Southern Oscillation events).

Graf, H.-F.: On a global auto-oscillation of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system and possible external impacts., Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 420, 157-167, 1988.

Graf, H.-F.: The middle troposphere over Asia prior to and during EL Niño/Southern Oscillation events., Z.Meteorol., 39, 169-174, 1989.

Graf, H.-F.: Associations of relative vorticity and wind anomalies over the northern hemisphere with the ENSO-cycle. Contr. Phys. Atmosph., 63, 117-127, 1990.

Graf, H.-F.: Telekonnektionen und EL Niño/Südliche Oszillation (ENSO). In "Das Klimasystem der Erde", P.Hupfer, Hrsg., Akademieverlag, Berlin, 1991, 145-156, 1991.

Goeber,M.; Herzel, H.P.; Graf, H.-F.: Dimension analysis of EL Niño/Southern Oscillation time series., Annales Geophysicae, 10, 729-734, 1992.

Kirchner, I. and H.-F. Graf: Volcanos and EL Niño - Signal Separation in winter., Climate Dynamics 11, 341-358, 1995.

Graf, H.-F., W. Chen, and H. Brix: The relationship between East Asia winter monsoon and EL Niño/Southern Oscillation, Proc. Intenational Conference on the Variability and Predictability of the Asian Monsoon, Xi’an city, China, Sept. 1998, 119-125, 1998.

Graf H-F, D. Zanchettin, Central Pacific EL Niño, the „subtropical bridge“ and Eurasian Climate, JGR Atmospheres, 117, (D1), doi:10.1029/2011JD016493., 2012.

Zhang, Wei; Graf, H. -F.; Leung, Yee; et al., Different EL Niño Types and Tropical Cyclone Landfall in East Asia., JOURNAL OF CLIMATE,  Volume: 25,   Issue: 19,   Pages: 6510-6523,   DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00488.1,   Published: OCT 2012.

Pascolini-Campbell M, Zanchettin D, Bothe O, Timmreck C, Matei D, Jungclaus JH, Graf H.-F.: Toward a record of Central Pacific El Niñ events since 1880, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 1-11, 2014.

Lai A.W.-C., M. Herzog, H.-F. Graf: Two key parameters for the El Niñ continuum: zonal wind anomalies and Western Pacific subsurface potential temperature, Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2550-0, 2015.

Global Atmospheric Circulation

Olberg, M.; Graf, H.-F.; Witschel, W.: Andauerstatistik und Persistenzverhalten der Zirkulationsformen nach Dzerdzeevskij., Z. Meteorol. 26, 25-325-32, 1976. (Duration statistics and persistence of circulation modes after Dzerdzeevskij).

Graf, H.-F.: Andauerverhalten und Jahresgang zonaler und meridionaler Zirkulationsformen auf der Nordhemisphäre., Z. Meteorol. 27, 103-106, 1977. (Duration and annual course of zonal and meridional circulation forms on the Northern hemisphere).

Graf, H.-F.; Funke,H.: Blockierungssituationen im europäisch-atlantischen Raum, Teil 1: Phänomenologische Untersuchungen., Z. Meteorol. 36, 104-112, 1986. (Blocking situations in the European-Atlantic area, Part 1: Phenomenological investigations).

Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz; I. Kirchner and I. Schult: Recent northern winter climate trends, Ozone changes and increased greenhouse forcing., Contr. Atmos. Phys., 68, 233-248, 1995.

Graf, H.-F. and J. Perlwitz: Secular Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Österreichische Beiträge zur Meteorologie und Geophysik, Nr. 19, 2nd European Conference on Applied Climatology, Vienna, Oct. 1998, CD-ROM.

Chen W., Graf H.-F., Huang R.H: The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon and its relation to the summer monsoon, ADV ATMOS SCI 17, (1), 48-60, 2000.

Graf, H.-F. and J. Perlwitz: Multidecadal variability of Northern hemisphere fundamental circulation modes in a 2000 year ocean-atmosphere model run: Implications for climate change assessment. In: G.Beig (Ed.), Long Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere, New Age, Intl. limited, Publishers, New Delhi, Bangalore, Calcutta, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabat, Lucknow, Mumbai, 195-201, 2001.

Graf, H.-F. and J. Perlwitz: Changing stratospheric circulation, the greenhouse effect and ozone loss. in: G.Beig (Ed.), Long Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere, New Age, Intl. limited, Publishers, New Delhi, Bangalore, Calcutta, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabat, Lucknow, Mumbai, 136-147, 2001.

Castanheira, J.M., H.-F. Graf, C.C. Da Camara and A. Rocha: Using a physical reference frame to study global circulation variabilty. J ATMOS SCI 59 (9), 1490-1501, MAY 2002.

Gillett, N., Graf, H.-F., and T. Osborn: Climate Change and the North Atlantic oscillation, in AGU Geophysical Monograph Series Vol. 134, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, eddited by J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbek, 193-209, 2002.

Walter, K., Graf, H.-F.: On the changing nature of the regional connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation and sea surface temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D17), 4338, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000850, 2002.

Chen W, Graf H.-F., Takahashi M: Observed interannual oscillations of planetary wave forcing in the Northern Hemisphere winter, GEOPHYS RES LETT 29 (22), art. no. 2073, NOV 15 2002.

Castanheira, J.M. and H.-F. Graf, 2003: North Pacific - North Atlantic relationships under stratospheric control? J. Geophys. Res., Vol.108, D1, 4036, doi :10.1029/2002JD002754, 2003.

Chen W., M. Takahashi, and H.-F. Graf, 2003: Interannual variations of stationary planetary wave activity in the northern winter troposphere and stratosphere and their relations to Northern Annular Mode and Sea Surface temperature, J Geophys. Res.-Atmos 108 (D22): 4705 Nov 25, 2003.

Walter, K., H.-F. Graf: The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength, Atmos Chem Physics, 5, 239-248, SRef- ID:1680-7324/acp/2005-5-239, 2002.

Graf, H.-F. and K. Walter: Polar vortex controls coupling of North Atlantic ocean and atmosphere., Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01704, doi:10.1029/2004GL020664, 2005.

Walter, K. and H.-F. Graf: Life cycles of the North Atlantic Teleconnections under strong and weak polar vortex conditions., Q.J.R. Meteorol Soc, 132, no. 615, 467-483, DOI: 10.1256/qj.05.25, 2006.

Gabriel, A, D. Peters, I. Kirchner and H.-F. Graf: The effect of zonally asymmetric stratospheric ozone on large-scale dynamics and planetary wave propagation in the tropo-, strato- and mesosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 34, L06807, doi:10.1029/2006GL028998,, 2007.

Castanheira, J. M., M. L. R. Liberato C. A. F. Marques and H.-F. Graf: Bridging the Annular Mode and North Atlantic Oscillation paradigms, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112, D19103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008477, 2007.

Castanheira, JM; Liberato, MLR; de la Torre, L, H.-F. Graf, and A. Rocha:
 Annular versus nonannular variability of the northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation, JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 21, 13, 3180-3190, 2008.

Shangfeng Chen, Wen Chen, Bin Yu, and Hans-F. Graf: Modulation of the Arctic Oscillation on the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS,  Volume: 40,   Issue: 24,   Pages: 6384-6389,   Published: DEC 28 2013.

Luo,M., Yee L., Zhang D., Graf, H.-F., M. Herzog: Interannual Variability of the Onset of the South China Sea Summer Monsoon, Int. Journ. Climatol., 2015.

Zanchettin D, Bothe O, Graf HF, Omrani NE, Rubino A, Jungclaus JH: A decadally delayed response of the tropical Pacific to Atlantic multidecadal variability, Geophysical Research Letters, 43(2), 784-792, 28 Jan 2016.

Ding, Shuoyi; Chen, Wen; Feng, Juan; Graf, Hans-F, et al.: Combined Impacts of PDO and Two Types of La Nina on Climate Anomalies in Europe, JOURNAL OF CLIMATE,   Volume: 30 - 9,   Pages: 3253-3278,   Published: MAY 2017.

Piao, Jinling; Chen, Wen; Wei, Ke; Graf, Hans-F et al.: An abrupt rainfall decrease over the Asian inland plateau region around 1999 and the possible underlying mechanism, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES,   Volume: 34,   Issue: 4,     Pages: 456-468,   Published: APR 2017.

Nath, Reshmita; Cui, Xuefeng; Nath, Debashis; Graf, Hans-F et al.: CMIP5 multimodel projections of extreme weather events in the humid subtropical Gangetic Plain region of India, EARTHS FUTURE,   Volume: 5,   Issue: 2,   Pages: 224-239,    Published: FEB 2017.


Cui, X.F., H-F. Graf, B. Langmann, W. Chen, and R-H. Huang: Climate impacts of anthropogenic land use changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Global and Planetary Change 54 33-56, 2006.

Xuefeng Cui, Baerbel Langmann, and Hans-F. Graf: Summer Monsoonal Rainfall Simulation on the Tibetan Plateau with a Regional Climate Model Using a Oneway Double-nesting System, SOLA, 2007, Vol. 3, 049-052, doi:10.2151/sola.2007-013, 2007.

Cui, X.F., H-F. Graf, B. Langmann, W. Chen, and R-H. Huang, 2005: Hydrological impacts of deforestation at the Southeast Tibetan Plateau: A model study, Earth Interaction, Volume 11, Paper No. 15, Page 1-18, 2007.

Cui, Xuefeng and H-F. Graf: Recent land cover changes on the Tibetan Plateau., Climatic Change, 94, 1-2, 47-61, 2009.

Diemberger H, Hastrup K, Schaffer S, Kennel CF, Sneath D, Bravo M, Graf H, Hobbs J, Davis J, Nodari ML, et al.: Communicating climate knowledge proxies, processes, politics., Current Anthropology, 53(2),226-244, 2012.

Gerken T, Babel W, Hoffmann A, Biermann T, Herzog M, Friend AD, Li M, Ma Y, Foken T, Graf H: Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(4),1095-1110, 2012.

Tobias Gerken, Tobias Biermann, Wolfgang Babel, Michael Herzog, Yaoming Ma, Thomas Foken, Hans-F. Graf, A modelling investigation into lake-breeze development and convection triggering in the Nam Co Lake basin, Tibetan Plateau, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-013-0987-9.

Gerken, Tobias; Babel, Wolfgang; Sun, Fanglin; et al., Uncertainty in atmospheric profiles and its impact on modeled convection development at Nam Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES,  Volume: 118,    Issue: 22,   Pages: 12317-12331,   Published: NOV 27 2013.

Babel, W., T. Biermann, H. Coners, E. Falge, E. Seeber, J. Ingrisch, P.-M. Schleuß, T. Gerken, J. Leonbacher, T. Leipold, S. Willinghöfer, K. Schützenmeister, O. Shibistova, L. Becker, S. Hafner, S. Spielvogel, X. Li, X. Xu, Y. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Wesche, H.-F. Graf, C. Leuschner, G. Guggenberger, Y. Kuzyakov, G. Miehe, and T. Foken, Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands, Biogeosciences, Volume: 11, Issue: 23, Pages: 6633-6656, 2014.

Gerken, T., Babel, W., Herzog, M., Fuchs, K., Sun, F., Ma, Y., Foken, T., and Graf, H.-F.: High-resolution modelling of interactions between soil moisture and convective development in a mountain enclosed Tibetan Basin, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4023-4040, doi:10.5194/hess-19-4023-2015, 2015.

Troposphere Stratosphere Coupling

Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz; I. Kirchner and I. Schult: On the interrelationship between recent climate trends, ozone changes and increased greenhouse gas forcing. In: NATO ASI Series, Subseries I "Global Environmental Change", Vol. 32, ed. by W.-C. Wang and I.S.A. Isaksen, pp. 163-179, 1995.

Perlwitz, J. and H.-F. Graf: The statistical connection between tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the Northern hemisphere in winter., Journal of Climate Vol.8, No. 10, 2281-2295, 1995.

Graf, H.-F., J. Perlwitz, and I. Kirchner: Coupled modes of tropospheric and stratospheric circulation in nature and in models. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997,129-132, 1997.

J. Perlwitz, H.-F. Graf, and I. Kirchner: Increasing Greenhouse effect and ozone trends. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996,WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997,461-464, 1997.

Graf, H.-F., I. Kirchner, and J. Perlwitz: Changing stratospheric circulation: The role of ozone and greenhouse gases., Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 11.251-11.261, 1998.

Feser, F., H.-F. Graf, J. Perlwitz: Secular variability of the coupled tropospheric and stratospheric circulation in the GCM ECHAM3/LSG, Theor. Appl. Clim., 65 1/2, 1-15, 2000.

Perlwitz, J., H.-F. Graf, and R. Voss: The leading mode of the coupled troposphere stratosphere winter circulation in different climate regimes., Journ. Geophys. Res., 105,6915-6926, 2000.

Perlwitz, J. and H.-F. Graf: Troposphere-stratosphere dynamic coupling under strong and weak polar vortex conditions., Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 271-274, 2001.

Perlwitz, J., Graf, H.-F.: The variability of the horizontal circulation in the troposphere and stratosphere - a comparison., Theor. Appl. Climatol. 69, 149-161, 2001.

Li, Q., H.-F. Graf, M. A. Giorgetta: Stationary planetary wave propagation in Northern Hemisphere winter – climatological analysis of the refractive index, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 6, 9033-9067, 2006; final form: Stationary planetary wave propagation in Northern Hemisphere winter: Climatological analysis of the refractive index. Q. Li, HF Graf and MA Giorgetta,

Castanheira, JM; Liberato, MLR; de la Torre, L, H-F Graf: Baroclinic Rossby Wave Forcing and Barotropic Rossby Wave Response to Stratospheric Vortex Variability, JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 66, 4, 902-914, 2009.

Gabriel, A., Höschel, I., Peters, D.H.W., Kirchner, I., and Graf, H.-F.: The influence of zonally asymmetric stratospheric ozone on the coupling of atmospheric layers, in Climate And Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES): Highlights from a priority program, F.-J. Lübken (Ed.), Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 443-466, 2011.

Li Q, Graf H, Cui X: The role of stationary and transient planetary waves in the maintenance of stratospheric polar vortex regimes in Northern Hemisphere winter, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 28(1), 187-194, 2011.

Graf H-F, Zanchettin D, Timmreck C, Bittner M, Observational constraints on the tropospheric and near-surface winter signature of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex, Climate Dynamics, 1-22, 2014.


Graf, H.-F.: Response of the T21-Atmosphere to a North-Polar global radiation deficit. In: Fischer,G.(Ed.) Climate Simulations with the ECMWF T21-Model in Hamburg. Part III: Diagnosis of Response Experiments. Large Scale Atmospheric Modelling Rpt. No. 7, Hamburg, 1989.

Graf, H.-F.: Die Wirkung von Vulkaneruptionen im Klimasystem. In "Das Klimasystem der Erde", P.Hupfer, Hrsg., Akademieverlag, Berlin, 1991, 103-116, 1991. (The effect of volcanic eruptions in the climate system)

Graf, H.-F.: Arctic radiation deficit and climate variability., Climate Dynamics, 7, 19-28, 1992.

Graf, H.-F.; Sausen,R.; Kirchner, I.; Schubert,S.: The Impact of upper-tropospheric aerosol on global atmospheric circulation., Annales Geophysicae, 10, 698-707, 1992.

Schult, I. und H.-F. Graf: Globaler Klimaeffekt von Vulkanaerosol - Aerosolbildung und Strahlungswirkung, UWSF-Z. Umweltchem. Ökotox., 4, 296-302 (Global effect of volcanic aerosol - Aerosol formation and radiative effects), 1992.

Graf, H.-F. und I. Schult: Globaler Klimaeffekt von Vulkanaerosol - Modellierung der globalen Effekte, UWSF-Z. Umweltchem. Ökotox., 4, 368-374 (Global effect of volcanic aerosol - Modelling of global effects), 1992.

Graf, H.-F.; I. Kirchner; A. Robock and I. Schult: Pinatubo eruption winter climate effects: Model versus observation., Climate Dynamics, 9, 81-93, 1993.

Graf, H.-F.; J. Perlwitz and I. Kirchner: Northern hemisphere tropospheric midlatitude circulation after violent volcanic eruptions., Contr. Atmos. Physics, 67, 1, 3-13, 1994.

Ulbrich, U.; H.-F. Graf and I. Kirchner: The impact of EL Niño- and volcanic forcing on the atmospheric energy c ycle and the zonal mean atmospheric circulation., Contr. Atmos. Phys. 68, 59-74, 1995.

Kirchner, I. und H.-F. Graf: Sensitivitätstests zu atmosphärischen Auswirkungen vulkanischen Aerosols in der Atmosphäre als Funktion des Grundzustandes und der Modellauflösung., Ann. Meteorol. 31, 98-99, 1995.

Denhard, M., Graf, H.-F., Kirchner,I., Schönwiese, Ch.-D: Volcanic and EL Niño signal separation in GCM simulations with neural networks., Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 69, 1996, 285-296, 1996.

Graf, H.-F. and B. Langmann: Sulfur emissions from Mt. Etna and the impact on the European atmosphere sulfur budget. in: Borrell, P.M., Borrell, P., Cvitas, T., Kelly, K., Seiler, W. (eds.), Proceedings EUROTRAC ’96, ed. P.M. Borrell et al., Computational Mechanics Publications, Southhampton, pp. 7-11.1-11.5, 1996.

Graf, H.-F.; I. Kirchner and I. Schult: Modelling Mt. Pinatubo Climate Effects, in: The Mount Pinatubo Eruption: Effects on the Atmosphere and Climate", Eds. G. Fiocco, D. Fua, and G. Visconti, NATO ASI series I, global environmental change: v. 42, Springer Berlin Heidelberg NewYork, 1996, 219-232, 1996.

H.-F. Graf, J. Feichter,and B. Langmann: Volcanic degassing: Contribution to global sulphate burden and climate., Journ. Geophys. Res., 102, 107227-10738, 1997.

Timmreck, C., J. Feichter, and H.-F. Graf: Transient simulation of Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TDNo. 814, May 1997,595-598, 1997.

Kirchner, I., H.-F. Graf, G.L. Stenchikov, and A. Robock: ECHAM4 GCM simulations of the climatic response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption - winter warming confirmed. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, 645-648, 1997.

Stenchikov, G.L.; A. Robock, I. Kirchner, and H.-F. Graf: Radiative forcing of climate from the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. in: Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), Proceedings of the First SPARC General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 1996, WCRP-99, WMO/TD-No. 814, May 1997, 653-656, 1997.

Graf, H.-F., B. Langmann, and J. Feichter: The contribution of Earth degassing to the atmospheric sulfur budget. Chemical Geology, 147, 131-145, 1998.

Sachs, P.M. und H.-F. Graf: Das Klima und seine Variabilität. Die Rolle der Vulkane. In: Warnsignale aus der Klimaentwicklung (Hrsg. Lozan J.L., Graßl, H., Hupfer, P., Jacob, H., und P. Sterr) Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin und Hamburg, 37-40 (Climate and its variability: The role of volcanoes), 1998.

Stenchikov, G.L., I. Kirchner, A. Robock, H.-F. Graf, J.C. Antuna, R. Grainger, A. Lambert, and L. Thomason: Radiative forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. MPI Report No. 231, Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,837-13,857, 1998.

Herzog, M., H.-F. Graf, Ch. Textor, and J. M. Oberhuber: The effect of phase changes of water on the development of volcanic plumes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 87, 55-74, 1998.

Oberhuber, J. M., M. Herzog, H.-F. Graf, and K. Schwanke: Volcanic plume simulation on large scales., J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 87, 29-53, 1998.

Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, and J. Feichter: Simulation of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol with the Hamburg climate model ECHAM4., Theor. and Appl. Clim., 62, No. 3-4, 85-109, 1999.

Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, I. Kirchner: A one and a half year interactive simulation of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol., Journ. Geophys. Res., 104, 9337-9369, 1999.

Kirchner, I., G.L. Stenchikov, H.-F. Graf, A. Robock, and J.C. Antuna: Climate model simulation of winter warming and summer cooling following the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption, Journ. Geophys. Res., 104, 19,039-19,055, 1999.

Graf, H.-F., M. Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber, and C. Textor: The effect of environmental conditions on volcanic plume rise., J Geophys Res-Atmos, 104, (D20), 24309- 24320, 1999.

Graf, H.-F.: Klimaänderungen durch Vulkane, Wechselwirkung, 21, No.101, 27- 37, April 2000.

Halmer M.M., Schmincke H.-U., Graf H.-F.: The annual volcanic gas input into the atmosphere, in particular into the stratosphere: a global data set for the past 100 years., Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research., 115(3- 4),511-528, 2002.

Graf, H.-F.: Klimaänderungen durch Vulkane, PROMET, 28, Heft 3/4, 138-144, 2002.

Textor, C., P. M. Sachs, Hans-F. Graf, T.M. Hansteen: The fate of sulphur and halogen gases in a Plinian volcanic plume similar to the Laacher See eruption 12900 a BP in: Volcanic degassing, C. Oppenheimer, D. Pyle, and D.M. Barclay (eds), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 213, 307-328, 2003.

Textor, Christiane; Graf, Hans-F.; Herzog, Michael; Oberhuber, J. M.: Injection of gases into the stratosphere by explosive volcanic eruptions., J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 108, No. D19, 4606 10.1029/2002JD002987, 09 October 2003.

Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf and B. Steil, Aerosol chemistry interactions after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, in: Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, eds. A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, AGU Monograph, 139, p 213-225, 2003.

Grainger, R. and H.-F. Graf: GMES-GATO Strategy Report. G.Braathen, N. Harris, and J. Levine (eds.), European Commission, Brussels, Chapter 5: Volcano monitoring and public safety, 2004.

Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, C. Timmreck, and A. Robock: Emissions from volcanoes, in C. Granier, P. Artaxo, C. E. Reeves (eds.), Emissions of Atmospheric Trace Compounds, Advances in Global Change Research, 18, pp. 269-303, 2004.

Timmreck, C., and H.-F. Graf, The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study, Atmos Chem Physics, 6, Page(s) 35-49, SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2006-6-35, 2006.

Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, A. Longo, A. Neri, T.E. Ongaro, P. Papale, C. Timmreck, and G.G.J. Ernst, 2005: Numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions from the conduit flow to global atmospheric effects., Annals of Geophysics, 48, 4/5, 817-842, 2005.

Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, M. Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber, W. I. Rose, G. G. J. Ernst: Volcanic Particles in Explosive Eruption Columns, Part I: Parameterisation of Ash Aggregation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 150, 359-377, 2006.

Textor, C., H.-F. Graf, M.Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber, W. I. Rose, G. G. J. Ernst: Volcanic Particles in Explosive Eruption Columns, Part II: Numerical Experiments, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 150, 378-394, 2006.

Stenchikov, G., K. Hamilton, R. J. Stouffer, A. Robock, V. Ramaswamy, B. Santer, and Hans-F. Graf, Arctic Oscillation response to volcanic eruptions in the IPCC AR4 climate models, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006286, 2006.

Pfeffer MA, Langmann B, Graf HF, Atmospheric transport and deposition of Indonesian volcanic emissions, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 6, 2525-2537, JUN 30 2006.

Graf, H.-F., Q. Li, and M.A. Giorgetta, 2007: Volcanic effects on climate: Revisiting the mechanisms., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4503-4511, 2007.

Thomas, M. A., C. Timmreck, M. Giorgetta, H. Graf, and G. Stenchikov, Simulation of the climate impact of Mt. Pinatubo eruption using ECHAM5 – Part 1: Sensitivity to the modes of atmospheric circulation and boundary conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 757-769, 2009.

Thomas, M. A., M. Giorgetta, C. Timmreck, H. Graf, and G. Stenchikov, Simulation of the climate impact of Mt. Pinatubo eruption using ECHAM5 – Part 2: Sensitivity to the phase of the QBO and ENSO, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3001-3009, 2009.

Niemeier, U., Timmreck, C., Graf, H.-F., Kinne, S., Rast, S., and Self, S.: Initial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9043-9057,, 2009.

Tupper, A., Christiane Textor, Michael Herzog, Hans-F. Graf, Michael S. Richards: Tall clouds from small eruptions: modelling the sensitivity of eruption height and fine ash fallout to tropospheric instability. Natural Hazards, DOI 10.1007/s11069-009-9433-9, Nov 2009.

Herzog, M., and H.-F. Graf, Applying the three-dimensional model ATHAM to volcanic plumes: Dynamic of large co-ignimbrite eruptions and associated injection heights for volcanic gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19807, doi:10.1029/2010GL044986, 2010.

Timmreck, C., Hans-F. Graf, Stephan J. Lorenz, Ulrike Niemeier, Davide Zanchettin, Daniela Matei, Johann H. Jungclaus and Thomas J. Crowley: Aerosol size confines climate response to volcanic super-eruptions, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L24705, doi: 10.1029/2010GL045464, 2010.

Claudia Timmreck, Hans-F. Graf, Davide Zanchettin, Stefan Hagemann, Thomas, Kleinen, Kirstin Krüger: Climate response to the Toba super-eruption: regional changes, Quarternay International, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.10.008, 2011.

Zanchettin, D., C. Timmreck, H.-F. Graf, A. Rubino, S. Lorenz, K. Lohmann, K. Krueger, J. H. Jungclaus: Bi-decadal variability excited in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system by strong tropical volcanic eruptions, Climate Dynamics, Volume: 39, Issue: 1-2, Pages: 419-444, Published: JUL 2012.

Zanchettin, D; Timmreck, C; Bothe, O; Lorenz, SJ; Hegerl, G; Graf, HF; Luterbacher, J; Jungclaus, JH: Delayed winter warming: A robust decadal response to strong tropical volcanic eruptions?, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS,  Volume: 40,   Issue: 1,    Pages: 204-209,   DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054403,   Published: JAN 16 2013.

Marzano, F.S., Mirko Lamantea, Mario Montopoli, Michael Herzog, Hans Graf, Domenico Cimini, Microwave remote sensing of the 2011 Plinian eruption of the Grímsvötn Icelandic volcano, Remote Sensing of Environment, 129, 168–184, 2013.

Montopoli, M., M. Herzog, Gianfranco Vulpiani, Domenico Cimini, F.S. Marzano, and H. Graf: REMOTE SENSING OF VOLCANIC ASH: SYNERGISTIC USE OF ASH MODELS AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ERUPTING PLUMES., International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 711-714, 01 Dec 2013.

Zanchettin, Davide; Bothe, Oliver; Graf, Hans F. et al.: Background conditions influence the decadal climate response to strong volcanic eruptions, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES,  Volume: 118,   Issue: 10,   Pages: 4090-4106,   Published: MAY 27 2013.

Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Lamantea, Mirko; et al., Microwave Radiometric Remote Sensing of Volcanic Ash Clouds From Space: Model and Data Analysis, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,  Volume: 51,   Issue: 9,   Special Issue: SI, Pages: 4678-4691,   Published: SEP 2013.

Zanchettin, D., O. Bothe, C. Timmreck, J. Bader, A. Beitsch, H.-F. Graf, D. Notz, and J. H. Jungclaus, Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill), Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 223–242,, 2014.

Raible CC, Brönnimann S, Auchmann R, Brohan P, Frölicher TL, Graf HF, Jones P, Luterbacher J, Muthers S, Neukom R et al, Tambora 1815 as a test case for high impact volcanic eruptions: Earth system effects, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, Climate Change, 7(4), 569-589, 01 Jul 2016.

Stratospheric Aerosol

Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, J. Feichter, and I. Schult: 3D-Simulation of the formation and the development of stratospheric aerosol., Proc. 14th International Conf. Aerosols (ICNNA), Helsinki, Aug. 1996.

Timmreck, C., J. Feichter, H.-F. Graf, I. Kirchner, and E. Manzini: Interactive Simulat ion of Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol., J. Aerosol Sci., Vol. 28, Suppl. 1, S723- S724, 1997.

Timmreck, C., J. Feichter, and H.-F. Graf: Stratospheric aerosol simulation with a GCM., J. Aerosol Sci., 30, Suppl. 1, 457-458, 1999.

Timmreck, C. and H.-F. Graf: A microphysical model for simulation of stratospheric aerosol in a climate model. Meteorol. Z., 9, 263-282, 2000.

Timmreck, C. and Graf, H.-F., Three-dimensional simulation of stratospheric background aerosol: First results of a multiannual GCM simulation. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28,313-28,332, 2001.

Hommel, R. and H-F Graf, Modelling the size distribution of geoengineered stratospheric aerosols, Atm. Sci. Lett., 12, 2, 168-175, 2011.

Hommel, R., Timmreck, C., and Graf, H. F.: The global middle-atmosphere aerosol model MAECHAM5-SAM2: comparison with satellite and in-situ observations, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 809-834, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-809-2011, 2011.

Hommel, R., Timmreck, C., Giorgetta, M. A., and Graf, H.-F.: Quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical stratospheric aerosol layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5557-5584, doi:10.5194/amt-8-5223-2015, 2015.


Popielas, D.; Graf, H.-F.: Sind Grobgitter GCM's noch von aktueller Bedeutung? Ann. Meteorol. 26, S. 143 (Are coarse grid GCMs still of relevance?), 1989.

Loth, B.; Graf, H.-F., Oberhuber, J.M.: Snow-cover model for global climate simulations. Journ. Geophys. Res., Vol 98, D6, 10, 451-10, 464, 1993.

Langmann, B. and Graf, H.-F.: Another Meteorological Driver (HIRHAM) for the Chemistry Transport Model (CTM) of the EURAD-System: First Simulation with the Coupled System. The Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium ’94, ed. P.M. Borrell et al., pp. 830-833, Academic Publishing bv., The Hague, The Netherlands, 1994.

Graf, H.-F., S. Cox, X.-Z. Liang, H. Mao, G. Myhre, P. Rasch, L.P Riishojgaard, K.Shine, I.Thorstensen, G.-X. Wu, I. Yagai, and L. Zetterberg: Climate Modeling. In: NATO ASI Series, Subseries I "Global Environmental Change", Vol. 32, ed. by W.-C. Wang and I.S.A. Isaksen, pp. 39-46, 1995.

Graf, H.-F., 1995: Beobachtete und modellierte Klimaveränderungen - Projektionen in die Zukunft. Hamburger Beiträge zur Friedensforschuung und Sicherheitspolitik, Heft 92, 7- 29, 8 Abb., Aug. 1995.

Langmann, B. and H.-F. Graf: Another meteorological driver (HIRHAM) for the EURAD Chemistry-Transport Model (CTM): Validation and sensitivity studies with the coupled system. in: Transport and chemical evolution of pollutants in the troposphere,Volume 7, A. Ebel, R. Friedrich and H. Rodhe (editors): Tropospheric Modelling and Emission Estimation, 46-51, Springer, Heidelberg, 1997.

Langmann, B. and H.-F. Graf: The chemistry of the polluted atmosphere over Europe: Simulations and sensitivity studies with a regional Chemistry-Transport-Model, Atmospheric Environment, 31, No. 19, 3239-325, 1997.

Loth, B. and H.-F. Graf: Modelling the snow cover in climate studies: Part I: Longterm integrations under different climate conditions using a multi-layer snow cover model., Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 11.313-11.327, 1998.

Loth, B. and H.-F. Graf: Modelling the snow cover in climate studies: Part II: The sensitivity to internal snow parameters and interface processes., Journ. Geophys. Res., 103, 11.329- 11340, 1998.

Dameris, M., Graf, H.-F., Mauersberger, K., Zellner, R.: Schlussfolgerungen und offene Fragen, in Zellner, R., Peter, Th., Dämmer,K., Quintern, L.: 10 Jahre Deutsche Ozonforschung, Verl. Marketing und Information, Worms, 1999, 120-127, 1999.

The 2002 UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, Cochairs, Scientific Assessment Panel: A.-L. Ajavon, D. Albritton, G. Mégie, R. Watson, Chapter 2: Very Short-Lived Substances, Lead Authors: Malcolm Ko (USA) and Gilles Poulet (France), Coauthors: D. Blake (USA), O. Boucher (France), J. Burkholder (USA), M. Chin (USA), T. Cox (UK), C. George (France), H. Graf (Germany), J. Holton (USA), D. Jacob (USA), K. Law (UK), M. Lawrence (Germany), P. Midgley (Germany), P. Seakins (UK), D. Shallcross (UK), S. Strahan (USA), D. Wuebbles (USA), Y. Yokouchi (Japan).

M. Herzog, J.M. Oberhuber and H.-F. Graf: A Prognostic Turbulence Scheme for´the Nonhydrostatic Plume Model ATHAM., J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 60, No. 22, pages 2783--2796, 2003.

Eyring, V., N.R.P. Harris, M. Rex, T.G. Shepherd, D.W. Fahey, J. Austin, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, P. Forster, A. Gettelmann, H.-F. Graf, T. Nagashima, P.A. Newman, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, R.J. Salawitch, B.D. Santer, amd D. Waugh: Comprehensive summary on the workshop on “process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models”, SPARC Newsletter, No 23, May 2004.

Eyring, V., N.R.P. Harris, M. Rex, T.G. Shepherd, D.W. Fahey, J. Austin, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, P. Forster, A. Gettelmann, H.-F. Graf, T. Nagashima, P.A. Newman, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, R.J. Salawitch, B.D. Santer, amd D. Waugh: A strategy for process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models. BAMS, 86 (8), 1117-1133, 2005.

Lu, H., M. J. Jarvis, Hans-F. Graf, P. C. Young, and R. B. Horne, Atmospheric temperature responses to solar irradiance and geomagnetic activity, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11109, doi:10.1029/2006JD007864, 2007.

Shirsat S. V. and H. F. Graf, 2009: An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3397-3408, 2009.

Graf, H.-F., S. V. Shirsat, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Jarvis, R. Podzun, and D. Jacob, Continental Scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2457-2465, 2010.

Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard; Graf, Hans-F, "Atmospheric Transport of Persistent Organic Pollutants to and from the Arctic under Present-Day and Future Climate", Environmental Science and Technology, 16. February 2015.

Nath D, Chen W, Graf H-F, Lan X, Gong H, Nath R, Hu K, Wang L, Subtropical Potential Vorticity Intrusion Drives Increasing Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Central Pacific., Sci. Rep., 6, 21370, 12 Feb 2016.


Juliane L. Fry, Hans-F Graf, Richard Grotjahn, Marilyn N. Raphael, Clive Saunders, and Richard Whitaker: The Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate Change, A Complete Visual Guide, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2010, 512 pp.